Zambia [Country Flag of Zambia]
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Zambia]



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Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

total: 752,610 sq km
land: 740,720 sq km
water: 11,890 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tropical storms (November to April)

Environment—current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros and elephant populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: landlocked


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Population: 9,460,736 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (male 2,342,043; female 2,316,357)
15-64 years: 48% (male 2,244,251; female 2,326,159)
65 years and over: 3% (male 106,950; female 124,976) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.13% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 44.6 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 22.55 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 92.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 37.07 years
male: 36.81 years
female: 37.33 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.41 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian

Ethnic groups: African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%

Religions: Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%

Languages: English (official), major vernaculars—Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages

definition: age 15 and over can read and write in English
total population: 78.2%
male: 85.6%
female: 71.3% (1995 est.)


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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia

Data code: ZA

Government type: republic

National capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution: 2 August 1991

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991); Vice President Christon TEMBO (since December 1997); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991); Vice President Christon TEMBO (since December 1997); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held October 2001); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Frederick CHILUBA elected president; percent of vote—Frederick CHILUBA 70%, Dean MUNGO'MBA 12%, Humphrey MULEMBA 6%, Akashambatwa LEWANIKA 4%, Chama CHAKOMBOKA 3%, others 5%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held October 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—MMD 130, NP 5, ZADECO 2, AZ 2, independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Akashambatwa LEWANIKA]; Labor Party or LP [Chibiza MFUNI]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement for Democratic Process or MDP [Chama CHAKOM BOKA]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Frederick CHILUBA]; National Lima Party or NLP [Guy SCOTT and Ben KAPITA]; National Party or NP [Daniel LISULO]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Kenneth KAUNDA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Dean MUNG'OMBA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MONUA, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dunstan Weston KAMANA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arlene RENDER
embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (1) 250-955, 252-230
FAX: [260] (1) 252-225

Flag description: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag


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Economy—overview: Despite progress in privatization and budgetary reform, Zambia's economy has a long way to go. Inflation, while slowing somewhat, continues to be a major concern to the CHILUBA government. Zambia's copper mining sector, which accounts for over 80% of the nation's foreign currency intake, is struggling. Production rates are down as are world copper prices. Aid cuts by Zambia's donors, arising out of concern for the November 1996 flawed election, will severely damage Zambia's economic prospects. Urged by the World Bank, Zambia has embarked on a privatization program which is to include the all-important copper industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$8.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$950 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 23%
industry: 40%
services: 37% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 43.9% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 85%, mining, manufacturing, and construction 6%, transport and services 9%

Unemployment rate: 22% (1991)

revenues: $888 million
expenditures: $835 million, including capital expenditures of $110 million (1995 est.)

Industries: copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1996)

Electricity—capacity: 2.436 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 7.79 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 668 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca); cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, beef, pork, poultry meat, milk, eggs, hides

total value: $975 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners: EU countries, Japan, South Africa, US, Saudi Arabia, India, Thailand, Malaysia

total value: $990 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, petroleum products, electricity, miscellaneous manufactured goods
partners: South Africa, EU countries, Japan, Saudi Arabia, US

Debt—external: $7.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $2 billion (1995 est.)

Currency: 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1—1,351.,35 (October 1997), 1,203.71 (1996), 857.23 (1995), 669.37 (1994), 452.76 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 80,900 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities
international: satellite earth stations—2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 1,889,140

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 215,000 (1995 est.)


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total: 2,164 km (1995)
narrow gauge: 2,164 km 1.067-m gauge (13 km double track)
note: the total includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and New Kapiri Mposhi where it connects to the Zambia Railways system; TAZARA is not a part of Zambia Railways

total: 39,700 km
paved: 7,265 km (including 60 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,435 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula rivers, Lake Tanganyika

Pipelines: crude oil 1,724 km

Ports and harbors: Mpulungu

Airports: 111 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 99
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 32 (1997 est.)


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Military branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary forces, Police

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 2,037,123 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 1,078,085 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $96 million (1995)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 2.7% (1995)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Democratic Republic of the Congo-Tanzania-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it has been informally reported that the indefinite section of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has been settled

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for methaqualone, heroin, and cocaine bound for Southern Africa and Europe; regional money-laundering center