Uganda [Country Flag of Uganda]
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Uganda]



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Location: Eastern Africa, west of Kenya

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references: Africa

total: 236,040 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 29% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 90 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment—current issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching is widespread

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography—note: landlocked


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Population: 22,167,195 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 51% (male 5,682,510; female 5,643,962)
15-64 years: 47% (male 5,157,818; female 5,199,080)
65 years and over: 2% (male 236,374; female 247,451) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.85% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 49.21 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 18.95 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: Uganda is host to refugees from a number of neighboring countries, including: Sudan 175,000, Rwanda possibly 10,000, and Democratic Republic of the Congo about 5,000

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 92.86 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.6 years
male: 41.81 years
female: 43.41 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.09 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic groups: Baganda 17%, Karamojong 12%, Basogo 8%, Iteso 8%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Bunyoro 3%, Batobo 3%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 23%

Religions: Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%

Languages: English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.8%
male: 73.7%
female: 50.2% (1995 est.)


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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda

Data code: UG

Government type: republic

National capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 39 districts; Apac, Arua, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Soroti, Tororo

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution: 8 October 1995; adopted by the interim, 284-member Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was dissolved on promulgation of the constitution in October 1995

Legal system: in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one based on English common law and customary law and reinstituted a normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); note—the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); Prime Minister Kintu MUSOKE (since 18 November 1994) note—the president is both chief of state and head of government; the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
elections: president elected by popular vote; election last held 9 May 1996 (next to be held by 31 May 2001); note—first popular election for president since independence in 1962; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 74%, Paul Kawanga SSEMOGERERE 24%, Muhammad MAYANJA 2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (276 members serve five-year terms; 214 directly elected by universal suffrage, but 62 are nominated by legally established special interest groups and approved by the president—women 39, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 3)
elections: elections to the National Assembly (formerly the National Resistance Council) took place on 27 June 1996 (next election to be held in 2001);
election results: NA; note—election campaigning by party was not permitted

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the president; High Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: only one political organization, the National Resistance Movement or NRM [Dr. Samson KISEKKA, chairman] is recognized; note—this is the party of President MUSEVENI; the president maintains that the NRM is not a political party, but a movement which claims the loyalty of all Ugandans
note: of the political parties that exist but are prohibited from sponsoring candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Milton OBOTE], Democratic Party or DP [Paul SSEMOGERERE], and Conservative Party or CP [Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI]; the new constitution requires the suspension of political party activity until a referendum is held on the matter in 2000

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edith Grace SSEMPALA
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL
embassy: Parliament Avenue, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795
FAX: [256] (41) 259794

Flag description: six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side


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Economy—overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government—with the support of foreign countries and international agencies—has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. In 1990-97, the economy turned in a solid performance based on: continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$34.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$1,700 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 49%
industry: 13%
services: 38% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 6% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 8.361 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 86%, industry 4%, services 10% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $869 million
expenditures: $985 million, including capital expenditures of $69 million (FY95/96)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Industrial production growth rate: 19.7% (FY95/96)

Electricity—capacity: 162,000 kW (1998)

Electricity—production: 807 million kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 35 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry

total value: $604 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, gold, cotton, tea, corn, fish
partners: Spain 23%, France 14%, Germany 14%, Italy 10%, Netherlands 8% (1995)

total value: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, chemicals, fuel, cotton piece goods, transportation equipment, food
partners: Kenya 26%, UK 12%, Japan 8%, Germany 8%, India 5.5% (1995)

Debt—external: $3.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1—1,148.1 (January 1998), 1,083.0 (1997), 1,046.1 (1996), 968.9 (1995), 979.4 (1994), 1,195.0 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July—30 June


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Telephones: 61,600 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: fair system
domestic: microwave radio relay and radiotelephone communications stations, cellular system
international: satellite earth station—1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.13 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 220,000 (1993 est.)


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total: 1,241 km
narrow gauge: 1,241 km 1.000-m gauge
note: a program to rehabilitate the railroad is underway (1995)

total: 27,000 km
paved: 1,800 km
unpaved: 25,200 km (of which about 4,800 km are all-weather roads) (1990 est.)

Waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward, Victoria Nile, Albert Nile

Ports and harbors: Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

Merchant marine:
total: 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,091 GRT/8,229 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 29 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 8 (1997 est.)


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Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Wing

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 4,672,307 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 2,534,993 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $56 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY93/94)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: none