Tajikistan [Country Flag of Tajikistan]
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Tajikistan]



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Current issues: Tajikistan has experienced three changes of government and a civil war since it gained independence in September 1991. The current president, Emomali RAHMONOV, was elected in November 1994, yet has been in power since 1992. A peace agreement was signed in June 1997, but implementation is progressing slowly. Russian-led peacekeeping troops are deployed throughout the country, and Russian-commanded border guards are stationed along the Tajikistani-Afghan border.


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Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total: 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain: Pamirs and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syrdariya 300 m
highest point: Qullai Kommunizm 7,495 m

Natural resources: significant hydropower potential, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 65% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment—current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated pollution

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: landlocked


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Population: 6,020,095 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (male 1,258,424; female 1,230,891)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,616,257; female 1,636,732)
65 years and over: 5% (male 118,485; female 159,306) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.67 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.77 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 112.14 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.48 years
male: 61.35 years
female: 67.77 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.53 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%

Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)


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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikistan
local short form: none
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TI

Government type: republic

National capital: Dushanbe

Administrative divisions: 2 oblasts (viloyatho, singular—viloyat) and one autonomous oblast* (viloyati avtonomii); Viloyati Avtonomii Badakhshoni Kuni* (Khorugh—formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa—formerly Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobod (Khujand—formerly Leninabad)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 9 September (1991)

Constitution: 6 November 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Yahyo AZIMOV (since 8 February 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president who proposes them to the Supreme Assembly for approval
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 6 November 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote—Emomali RAHMONOV 58%, Abdumalik ABDULLOJANOV 40%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli (181 seats; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 February and 12 March 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; estimated seats by party—Communist Party and affiliates 100, People's Party 10, Party of People's Unity 6, Party of Economic and Political Renewal 1, other 64

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; National Revival Bloc (Party of Popular Unity and Accord or PPUA) [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Democratic Party or TDP [Jumaboy NIYAZOV, chairman]; Islamic Renaissance Party or IRP [Mohammed Sharif HIMATZODA, chairman]; Rebirth (Rastokhez) [Takhir ABDUZHABOROV]; Lali Badakhshan Society [Atobek AMIRBEKOV]; Tajikistan Party of Economic and Political Renewal or TPEPR; Citizenship, Patriotism, Unity Party [Bobokhon MAHMADOV]; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV, chairman]; Congress of Popular Unity [Saifuddin TURAYEV]; Party of Justice and Development [Rahmutullo ZAINAV]

International organization participation: CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM, ITU, OIC, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tajikistan does not have an embassy in the US, but has a mission at the UN: address—136 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone—[1] (212) 472-7645, FAX—[1] (212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Rashid ALIMOV

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador R. Grant SMITH
embassy: interim chancery, Oktyabrskaya Hotel, 105A Prospect Rudaki, Dushanbe 734001
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3772) 21-03-56
FAX: Telex [7] (3772) 20-03-62

Flag description: three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven five-pointed gold stars is located in the center of the white stripe


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Economy—overview: Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the former Soviet republics. Agriculture dominates the economy, with cotton the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry is limited to a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The Tajik economy has been gravely weakened by four years of civil conflict and by the loss of subsidies from Moscow and of markets for its products. Tajikistan thus depends on aid from Russia and Uzbekistan and on international humanitarian assistance for much of its basic subsistence needs. Even if the peace agreement of June 1997 is honored, the country faces major problems in integrating refugees and former combatants into the economy. Moreover, constant political turmoil and the continued dominance by former communist officials have impeded the introduction of meaningful economic reforms.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$4.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: -10% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$700 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 35%
services: 40% (1997)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 40% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.9 million (1996)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 52%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 17%, services 31% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 2.4% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers and unregistered unemployed people (December 1996)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Industrial production growth rate: -20% (1996 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 4.443 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 14.66 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 2,302 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

total value: $768 million (1996 est.)
commodities: cotton, aluminum, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners: FSU 78%, Netherlands (1994)

total value: $657 million (1996 est.)
commodities: fuel, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, textiles, foodstuffs
partners: FSU 55%, Switzerland, UK (1994)

Debt—external: $635 million (of which $250 million to Russia) (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $22 million (1993)
note: commitments, $885 million (disbursements $115 million) (1992-95)

Currency: the Tajikistani ruble (TJR) = 100 tanga; Tajikistan introduced its own currency in May 1995

Exchange rates: Tajikistani rubles (TJR) per US$1—350 (January 1997), 284 (January 1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 303,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics, and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations—1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1
note: 1 Intelsat earth station provides TV receive-only service from Turkey

Televisions: NA


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total: 480 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines (1990)

total: 32,752 km
paved: 21,119 km (note—these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced)
unpaved: 11,633 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: natural gas 400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 59 (1994 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 45
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 36 (1994 est.)


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Military branches: Army, Air Force, Presidential National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower—military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 1,432,800 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 1,174,683 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: 62,558 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: 180 billion rubles (1995); note—conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 3.4% (1995)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: most of the boundary with China in dispute; territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan on northern boundary in Isfara Valley area

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe