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 Sweden [Country Flag of Sweden]
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Sweden]

Sweden

Geography

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Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 449,964 sq km
land: 410,928 sq km
water: 39,036 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,205 km
border countries: Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 68%
other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment—current issues: acid rain damaging soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

People

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Population: 8,886,738 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 852,520; female 808,600)
15-64 years: 64% (male 2,885,783; female 2,792,964)
65 years and over: 17% (male 653,631; female 893,240) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.7 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.78 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.93 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.19 years
male: 76.52 years
female: 82 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups: white, Lapp (Sami), foreign-born or first-generation immigrants 12% (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal 1%, other 3.5% (1987)

Languages: Swedish
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige

Data code: SW

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural); Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Independence: 6 June 1523, Gustav VASA was elected king; 6 June 1809, a constitutional monarchy was established

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the king (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister elected by the Parliament; election last held NA March 1996 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: Goran PERSSON elected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - 183 votes out of 349

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 18 September 1994 (next to be held 20 September 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party—Social Democrats 45.4%, Moderate Party (Conservatives) 22.3%, Center Party 7.7%, Liberals 7.2%, Left Party 6.2%, Greens 5.8%, Christian Democrats 4.1%, New Democracy Party 1.2%; seats by party—Social Democrats 162, Moderate Party (Conservatives) 80, Center Party 27, Liberals 26, Left Party 22, Greens 18, Christian Democrats 14; note—the New Democracy Party did not receive a seat because parties require a minimum of 4.0% of votes for a seat in parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen, judges are appointed by the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Carl BILDT]; Liberal People's Party [Maria LEISSNER]; Center Party; Christian Democratic Party [Alf SVENSSON]; New Democracy Party [Vivianne FRANZEN]; Left Party or VP (Communist) [Gudrun SCHYMAN]; Communist Workers' Party [Rolf HAGEL]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokesperson is Briger SCHLAUG]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 8, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rolf EKEUS
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lyndon Lowell OLSON, Jr.
embassy: Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [46] (8) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (8) 661 19 64

Flag description: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

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Economy—overview: Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole twentieth century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. In recent years, however, this extraordinarily favorable picture has been clouded by budgetary difficulties, inflation, high unemployment, and a gradual loss of competitiveness in international markets. To curb the budget deficit and bolster confidence in the economy, the government adopted an adjustment program in November 1994 that aims to eliminate the government budget deficit and to stabilize the debt to GDP ratio. Sweden has harmonized its economic policies with those of the EU, which it joined at the start of 1995. Sweden has decided not to join the EMU (European Monetary Union). Annual GDP growth should edge up to 2.5% in 1998-99.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$176.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 2.1% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$19,700 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 27%
services: 71% (1993)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.552 million (84% unionized, 1992)
by occupation: community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining and manufacturing 21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%, banking, insurance 9.0%, communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%, agriculture, fishing, and forestry 3.2% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 6.6% plus about 5% in training programs (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $109.4 billion
expenditures: $146.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96)

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (1996)

Electricity—capacity: 35.462 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 142.913 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 15,996 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: grains, sugar beets, potatoes; meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $84.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
partners: EU 59.1% (Germany 13.2%, UK 10.2%, Denmark 6.9%, France 5.1%), Norway 8.1%, Finland 4.8%, US 8.0% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $66.6 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
partners: EU 62.6% (Germany 18.4%, UK 9.5%, Denmark 6.6%, France 5.5%), Finland 6.3%, Norway 6.1%, US 8.5% (1994)

Debt—external: $66.5 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.769 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1—8.0085 (January 1998), 7.6349 (1997), 6.7060 (1996), 7.1333 (1995), 7.7160 (1994), 7.7834 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 January—31 December (Sweden changed its fiscal year from 1 July - 30 June in 1995)

Communications

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Telephones: 13 million (1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cable carry most voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay network carries some additional telephone channels
international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations—1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 360 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0

Radios: 7.272 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 880 (mostly repeaters)

Televisions: 3.5 million

Transportation

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Railways:
total: 11,837 km (includes 1,955 km of privately-owned railways)
standard gauge: 11,837 km 1.435-m gauge (7,317 km electrified and 1,152 km double track) (1996)

Highways:
total: 138,000 km
paved: 105,018 km (including 1,330 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,982 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: natural gas 84 km

Ports and harbors: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall

Merchant marine:
total: 164 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,036,831 GRT/1,919,367 DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 33, chemical tanker 27, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 29, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 41, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 12 (1997 est.)

Airports: 255 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 83
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 24 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 110
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 105 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

Military

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Military branches: Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force

Military manpower—military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 2,088,061 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 1,827,336 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: 52,208 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $5.8 billion (FY94/95)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY94/95)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for and consumer of narcotics shipped via the CIS and Baltic states; increasing consumer of European amphetamines