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 Serbia and Montenegro  
Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Serbia and Montenegro]

Serbia and Montenegro

Introduction

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Current issues: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation.

Geography

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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 102,350 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,938 sq km)
land: 102,136 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,724 sq km)
water: 214 sq km (Serbia 0 sq km; Montenegro 214 sq km)

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky (Serbia is slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro is slightly smaller than Connecticut)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km (with Serbia), Croatia (north) 241 km (with Serbia), Croatia (south) 25 km (with Montenegro), Hungary 151 km (with Serbia), The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km (with Serbia), Romania 476 km (with Serbia)
note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment—current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment—international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

People

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Population: 11,206,039 (July 1998 est.) (Montenegro—679,904; Serbia—10,526,135)

Age structure:
0-14 years: Montenegro—22% (male 76,764; female 71,647); Serbia— 20% (male 1,121,483; female 1,043,535)
15-64 years: Montenegro—67% (male 231,849; female 227,268); Serbia— 67% (male 3,539,198; female 3,487,318)
65 years and over: Montenegro—11% (male 29,837; female 42,539); Serbia— 13% (male 575,697; female 758,904) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: Montenegro—0.07%; Serbia—-0.02% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: Montenegro—13.55 births/1,000 population; Serbia—12.62 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: Montenegro—7.40 deaths/1,000 population; Serbia—9.67 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: Montenegro: -5.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population; Serbia: -3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: Montenegro—1.09 male(s)/female; Serbia—1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: Montenegro—1.07 male(s)/female; Serbia—1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: Montenegro—1.02 male(s)/female; Serbia—1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: Montenegro—0.70 male(s)/female; Serbia—0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: Montenegro—11.24 deaths/1,000 live births; Serbia—17.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: Montenegro—76.14 years; Serbia—73.17 years
male: Montenegro—72.67 years; Serbia—70.77 years
female: Montenegro—79.92 years; Serbia—75.76 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: Montenegro—1.76 children born/woman; Serbia—1.75 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: NA

Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora
note: Serbia and Montenegro has self-proclaimed itself the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia," but the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation

Data code: Serbia—SR; Montenegro—MW

Government type: republic

National capital: Belgrade (Serbia), Podgorica (Montenegro)

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republike, singular—republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular—autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia—SFRY)

National holiday: St. Vitus Day, 28 June

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Slobodan MILOSEVIC (since 23 July 1997); note—Milan MILUTINOVIC is president of Serbia (since 21 December 1997); Milo DJUKANOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 21 December 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September 1995), Vojin DJUKANOVIC (since 20 March 1997), Jovan ZEBIC (since 9 April 1998), and Vladan KUTLESIC (since 20 March 1997)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president elected by the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 23 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); prime minister nominated by the president
election results: Slobodan MILOSEVIC elected president; percent of legislative vote - Slobodan MILOSEVIC 90%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Savezna Skupstina consists of the Chamber of Republics or Vece Republika (40 seats, 20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin; members distributed on the basis of party representation in the republican assemblies to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats, 108 Serbian with half elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional representation, 30 Montenegrin with six elected by constituency and 24 proportionally; members serve four-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Republics—last held 24 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); Chamber of Citizens—last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: Chamber of Republics—percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party - NA; note—seats are filled on a proportional basis to reflect the composition of the legislatures of the republics of Montenegro and Serbia; Chamber of Citizens—percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—SPS/JUL/ND 64, Zajedno 22, DPSCG 20, SRS 16, NS 8, SVM 3, other 5; note—Zajedno coalition includes SPO, DS, GSS

Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for a nine-year term; Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party) [Slobodan MILOSEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC, president]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPSCG [Milica PEJANOVIC-DJURISIC, president]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Novak KILIBARDA]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Momir BULATOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP [Zarko RAKCEVIE]; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro [Slavko PEROVIC]; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM [Sandor PALL]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina or RDSV [Aleksandar POPOV]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Croats or DSHV [Bela TONKOVIC]; League of Communists-Movement for Yugoslavia or SK-PJ [Dragomir DRASKOVIC]; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; New Democratic League of Kosovo or LDRK [Hydayet HYSENI]; Parliamentary Party of Kosovo or PPK [Adern DERNACI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Dr. Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Vesna PESIC, chairman]; Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Mirjana MARKOVIC (MILOSEVIC's wife)]; New Democracy or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: the US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations; the Embassy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to function in the US
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Nebojsa VUJOVIC
chancery: 2410 California St. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-6566

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chief of Mission Richard M. MILES
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: American Embassy, Belgrade, United States Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5070 (pouch); Unit 1310, APO AE 09213-1310
telephone: [381] (11) 645655
FAX: [381] (11) 645332

Economy

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Economy—overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Output in Serbia and Montenegro dropped by half in 1992-93. Like the other former Yugoslav republics, it had depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy and manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia is the continuation in office of a communist government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices have been relatively stable since 1995. Reliable statistics continue to be hard to come by, and the GDP estimate is extremely rough. The economic boom anticipated by the government after the suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995 has failed to materialize. Until the government cooperates on such matters as human rights and war criminals, it will lack full support from international financial institutions.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$24.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$2,280 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 50%
services: 25% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 7% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 2.178 million
by occupation: industry 41%, services 35%, trade and tourism 12%, transportation and communication 7%, agriculture 5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: more than 35% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (1997 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 11.779 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 33.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 3,009 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $2.8 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: Russia, Italy, Germany

Imports:
total value: $6.2 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: Germany, Italy, Russia

Debt—external: $11.2 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1—official rate: 5.85 (December 1997), 5.02 (September 1996), 1.5 (early 1995); black market rate: 8.9 (December 1997), 2 to 3 (early 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

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Telephones: 700,000

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station—1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: 27 (public or state-owned 1, private 26)

Radios: 2.015 million

Television broadcast stations: 8 (state owned 1, privately owned 7) plus 1 Satellite TV down link and 48 cable distribution systems

Televisions: 1 million

Transportation

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Railways:
total: 3,987 km
standard gauge: 3,987 km 1.435-m gauge (1,341 km partially electrified) (1997)

Highways:
total: 49,525 km
paved: 28,873 km
unpaved: 20,652 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km

Ports and harbors: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika

Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 322,391 GRT/533,935 DWT (owned by Montenegro)
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 11, container 3
note: Montenegrin ships operate under the flag of Malta (1997 est.)

Airports: 48 (Serbia 43, Montenegro 5) (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (Serbia 3, Montenegro 2)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 1)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
under 914 m: 4 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 0) (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
914 to 1,523 m: 14 (Serbia 13, Montenegro 1)
under 914 m: 14 (Serbia 13, Montenego 1) (1997 est.)

Military

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Military branches: People's Army (includes Ground Forces with internal and border troops, Naval Forces, and Air and Air Defense Forces), Civil Defense

Military manpower—military age: Montenegro—19; Serbia—NA

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: Montenegro—187,131; Serbia— 2,731,102 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: Montenegro—150,666 (1998 est.); Serbia—2,187,111 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: Montenegro—5,591; Serbia—NA (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: 6.55 billion dinars (1998 est.); note—conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 6% (1998 est.)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian republic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP); the border commission formed by The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro in April 1996 to resolve differences in delineation of their mutual border has made no progress so far

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route