San Marino [Country Flag of San Marino]
Transnational Issues
[Country map of San Marino]

San Marino


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Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references: Europe

total: 60 sq km
land: 60 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fiume Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 749 m

Natural resources: building stone

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment—current issues: NA

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography—note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines


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Population: 24,894 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 1,994; female 2,013)
15-64 years: 67% (male 8,480; female 8,282)
65 years and over: 17% (male 1,732; female 2,393) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.11 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.42 years
male: 77.5 years
female: 85.34 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian

definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95% (1976 est.)


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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Data code: SM

Government type: republic

National capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular—castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 AD (by tradition)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3 September

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Loris FRANCINI and Captain Regent Alberto CECCHETTI (for the period 1 April-30 September 1998)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since NA July 1986)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
elections: co-chiefs of state (captain regents) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA March 1998 (next to be held NA September 1998); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held NA 1993 (next to be held NA June 1998)
election results: Loris FRANCINI and Alberto CECCHETTI elected captain regents; percent of legislative vote—NA; Gabriele GATTI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote—NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Great and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (Co-Chiefs of State) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Great and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which has ten other members, all selected by the Great and General Council; assisting the Captains Regent are three Secretaries of State—Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance—and several additional secretaries; the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has assumed many of the prerogatives of a prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Great and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 30 May 1993 (next to be held by 31 May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party—PDCS 41.4%, PSS 23.7%, PDP 18.6%, AP 7.7%, MD 5.3%, RC 3.3%; seats by party—PDCS 26, PSS 14, PDP 11, AP 4, MD 3, RC 2

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Cesare GASPERONI, secretary general]; Democratic Progressive Party or PDP (formerly San Marino Communist Party or PSS) [Stefano MACINA, secretary general]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Maurizio RATTINI, secretary general]; Democratic Movement or MD [Emilio DELLA BALDA]; Popular Alliance or AP [Antonella MULARONI]; Communist Refoundation or RC [Giuseppe AMICHI]

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: San Marino does not have an embassy in the US
honorary consulate(s) general: Washington, DC, and New York
honorary consulate(s): Detroit

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)


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Economy—overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1995 more than 3.3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies much of its food.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$500 million (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$20,000 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 5.3% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 15,600 (1995)
by occupation: services 55%, industry 43%, agriculture 2% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (April 1996)

revenues: $320 million
expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $26 million (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity—capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity—production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity—consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture—products: wheat, grapes, maize, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, meat, cheese, hides

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics

Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Debt—external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Italian lire (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note—also mints its own coins

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1—1,787.7 (January 1998), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 15,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
international: microwave radio relay and cable connections to Italian network; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA (1 private radio broadcast station)

Radios: 15,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1991 est.)
note: receives broadcasts from Italy

Televisions: 9,000 (1994 est.)


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Railways: 0 km; note—there is a 1.5 km cable railway connecting the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore

total: 220 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none


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Military branches: Voluntary Military Force, Police Force

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $3.7 million (1995)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 1% (1995)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: none