Slovenia [Country Flag of Slovenia]
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Slovenia]



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Location: Southeastern Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

total: 20,256 sq km
land: 20,256 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,334 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km

Coastline: 46.6 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain: a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources: lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 28%
forests and woodland: 51%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding and earthquakes

Environment—current issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94


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Population: 1,971,739 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 168,633; female 160,202)
15-64 years: 70% (male 692,043; female 686,707)
65 years and over: 13% (male 96,023; female 168,131) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.08% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.58 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.56 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.34 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.15 years
male: 71.48 years
female: 79.02 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups: Slovene 91%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 70.8% (including 2% Uniate), Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%

Languages: Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%

definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: NA%
female: NA%
note: of the total population 17.1% did not complete basic education, 29.9% completed basic education, 42.8% completed vocational/middle school, 8.8% completed higher education, and 1.4% education unknown


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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenije
local short form: Slovenija

Data code: SI

Government type: parliamentary democratic republic

National capital: Ljubljana

Administrative divisions: 136 municipalities (obcine, singular—obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (obcine mestne, singular—obcina mestna) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Bled, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova-Tisina, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik-Trnovska Vas, Divaca, Dobrepolje, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grosuplje, Hodos Salovci, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola, Jesenice, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Koper*, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podvelka-Ribnica, Postojna, Preddvor, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne-Prevalje, Ribnica, Rogasevci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Semic, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Sostanj, Starse Store, Sveti Jurij, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velike Lasce, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice Vojnik, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Ziri, Zrece

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: National Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution: adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 November 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 10 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 2000)
election results: Milan KUCAN elected president; percent of vote—Milan KUCAN 56.3%, Janez PODOBNIK 18%; Janez DRNOVSEK elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote—51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats, 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional basis; note—the numbers of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly—last held 10 November 1996 (next to be held Fall 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party—LDS 27.01%, SLS 19.38%, SDS 16.13%, SKD 9.62%, ZLDS 9.03%, DeSUS 4.32%, SNS 3.22%; seats by party—LDS 25, SLS 19, SDS 16, SKD 10, ZLSD 9, DeSUS 5, SNS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1; note—seating as of January 1997 is as follows: LDS 25, SLS 19, SDS 16, SKD 9, ZLSD 9, DeSUS 5, SNS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1, independents 1
note: the National Council or Drzavni Svet is an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws and ask to review any National Assembly decisions; in the election of NA November 1997, 40 members were elected to represent local, professional, and socioeconomic interests (next election to be held in the fall of 2002)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National Assembly on recommendation of the Judicial Council; Constitutional Court, judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic or LDS [Janez DRNOVSEK, chairman]; Slovene Christian Democrats or SKD [Lozje PETERLE, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDS [Janez JANSA, chairman]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Marjan PODOBNIK, chairman]; United List (former Communists and allies) or ZLSD [Borut PAHOR, chairman]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC, chairman]; Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS [Joze GLOBACNIK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dimitrij RUPEL
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH
embassy: address NA, Ljubljana
mailing address: P.O. Box 254, Prazakova 4, 1000 Ljubljana; American Embassy Ljubljana, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (61) 301-427, 472, 485
FAX: [386] (61) 301-401

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center, beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it, there are three six-sided stars arranged in an inverted triangle which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands


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Economy—overview: Today, Slovenia exhibits the highest per capita GDP of all the transition economies of the region, fairly moderate inflation, and a comfortable level of international reserves. However, GDP has posted slower growth since reaching a zenith of 5.5% in 1994. Growth declined to 3.5% in 1995 and 3.2% in 1996 and in 1997. Exports in 1997 benefited from economic recovery abroad—especially of Slovenia's main trading partners of the EU, which take 70% of Slovene exports. This export-led trend is predicted to continue, with an expected GDP growth rate of 3.8% for 1998. Slovenia received an invitation in 1997 to begin accession negotiations with the EU—a further reflection of Slovenia's sound economic footing. Slovenia must press on with privatization, enterprise restructuring, institution reform, and liberalization of financial markets, thereby creating conditions conducive to foreign investment, and maintaining a stable tolar.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$19.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.25% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$10,000 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 33%
services: 62% (1996)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 9.7% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 857,400
by occupation: services 62%, industry 36%, agriculture 2% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1997 est.)

revenues: $8.48 billion
expenditures: $8.53 billion, including capital expenditures of $455 million (1996 est.)

Industries: ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1996)

Electricity—capacity: 2.524 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 11.615 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 5,759 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry

total value: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactured goods 50.7%, machinery and transport equipment 31.4%, chemicals 10.5%, food 3.8% (1995)
partners: Germany 31%, former Yugoslavia 16.5%, Italy 13%, Croatia 10%, France 7%, Austria 7%, US 5% (1996)

total value: $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 33.8%, manufactured goods 30.4%, chemicals 12.1%, fuels and lubricants 6.6%, food 8.4% (1995)
partners: Germany 22%, Italy 17%, France 10%, Austria 10%, Croatia 6%, US 3% (1996)

Debt—external: $4.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $5 million (1993)

Currency: 1 tolar (SlT) = 100 stotins

Exchange rates: tolars (SlT) per US$1—171.30 (January 1998), 159.69 (1997), 135.36 (1996), 118.52 (1995), 128.81 (1994), 113.24 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 691,240 (1997 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: 70% digital; full digitalization scheduled by 2000
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 0
note: there are more than 20 regional and local radio broadcast stations

Radios: 596,100 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7
note: there are more than 20 local cable television broadcast stations

Televisions: 454,400 (1993 est.)


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total: 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 499 km) (1996)

total: 14,910 km
paved: 12,226 km (including 231 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,684 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA

Pipelines: crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km

Ports and harbors: Izola, Koper, Piran

Merchant marine:
total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 223,976 GRT/373,462 DWT (controlled by Slovenian owners)
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 5
note: ships operate under the flags of Antigua and Barbuda, Liberia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Singapore; no ships remain under the Slovenian flag (1997 est.)

Airports: 14 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)


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Military branches: Slovenian Army (includes Air and Naval Forces)

Military manpower—military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 531,429 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 423,198 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: 15,546 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 2.1% (1997)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: significant progress has been made with Croatia toward resolving a maritime border dispute over direct access to the sea in the Adriatic; Italy is negotiating with Slovenia over property and minority rights issues dating from World War II

Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe and for precursor chemicals