Saint Pierre and Miquelon
(territorial collectivity of France)
[Country Flag of Saint Pierre and Miquelon]
[Country map of Saint Pierre and Miquelon]

Saint Pierre and Miquelon


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Location: Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates: 46 50 N, 56 20 E

Map references: North America

total: 242 sq km
land: 242 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Area—comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

Terrain: mostly barren rock

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Environment—current issues: NA

Environment—international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography—note: vegetation scanty


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Population: 6,914 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.76% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.45 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.49 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.62 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.91 years
male: 75.35 years
female: 78.79 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%

Languages: French

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1982 est.)


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Country name:
conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Data code: SB

Dependency status: self-governing territorial collectivity of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Saint-Pierre

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)
note: there are no first-order administrative divisions approved by the US Government, but there are two communes—St. Pierre, Miquelon

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law with special adaptations for local conditions, such as housing and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Jean-Francois CARENCO (since NA 1996)
head of government: President of the General Council Bernard LE SOAVEC (since NA 1996)
cabinet: NA
elections: prefect appointed by the president of France on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council is elected by the members of the council

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats, 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: elections last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA April 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—RPR 15, other 4
note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last held NA September 1995 (next to be held NA September 2004); results - percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—RPR 1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 seat to the French National Assembly; elections last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results—percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party—UDF 1

Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party or PS; Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF

International organization participation: FZ, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Flag description: a yellow sailing ship rides on a dark blue background with a black wave line under the ship; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the square into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one on top of the other; the flag of France is used for official occasions


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Economy—overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre has dropped steadily over the years. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. The islands are heavily subsidized by France. Imports come primarily from Canada and France.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$74 million (1996 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: NA%

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$11,000 (1996 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate—consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 2,971 (1995)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 11% (1996)

revenues: $28 million
expenditures: $28 million, including capital expenditures of $7.8 million (1992 est.)

Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity—capacity: 27,000 kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 42 million kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 6,216 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs; fish catch of 14,800 metric tons (1994)

total value: $5 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts
partners: US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal (1990)

total value: $70.2 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials
partners: Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK

Debt—external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—6.0836 (January 1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 3,650 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 3,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (programs from France, Canada, and the US are rebroadcast)

Televisions: 2,000 (1992 est.)


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Railways: 0 km

total: 114 km
paved: 69 km
unpaved: 45 km (1994 est.)

Ports and harbors: Saint Pierre

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)


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Military—note: defense is the responsibility of France