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 Portugal [Country Flag of Portugal]
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Portugal]

Portugal

Geography

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Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico in Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble

Land use:
arable land: 26%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 36%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Environment—current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 94

Geography—note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People

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Population: 9,927,556 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 881,091; female 834,775)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,283,273; female 3,429,233)
65 years and over: 15% (male 612,221; female 886,963) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.07% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.63 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.26 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.87 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.66 years
male: 72.27 years
female: 79.25 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%

Languages: Portuguese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85%
male: 89%
female: 82% (1990 est.)

Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal

Data code: PO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular—distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular—regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Dependent areas: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China on 20 December 1999)

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 5 November 1992, and 3 September 1997

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliviera GUTERRES (since 28 October 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 January 1996 (next to be held NA January 2001); following assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Jorge SAMPAIO elected president; percent of vote—Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 53.8%, Anibal CAVACO SILVA (Social Democrat) 46.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 1 October 1995 (next to be held by NA October 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party—PSD 34.0%, PS 43.8%, CDU 8.6%, CDS/PP 9.1%; seats by party—PSD 88, PS 112, CDU 15, CDS/PP 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica, judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcelo Rebelo DE SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Antonio GUTERRES]; Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Popular Party or PP (formerly known as Center Democratic Party or CDS) [Rebelo DE SOUSA]; National Solidarity Party or PSN [Manuel SERGIO]; United Democratic Coalition or CDU (communists; includes the PCP and a number of small leftist groups)

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Fernando Antonio de Lacerda ANDRESEN GUIMARAES
chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco
consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gerald S. MCGOWAN
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
mailing address: PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (1) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (1) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line

Economy

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Economy—overview: Portugal's short-term economic fundamentals remain strong: 1997 was marked by a reduction in inflation, a rise in the GDP growth rate, a reduction in the fiscal deficit, and a lowering of interest rates. The Socialist government's primary economic goal is to place Portugal in the initial group of countries adopting the single European currency; Lisbon looks well positioned to be in the first tranche of EMU countries. As for the long run, Portugal is increasing its infrastructure spending, in anticipation of hosting the world's International Exposition, which began in May 1998. Lisbon also is working to modernize its capital plant and increase competitiveness in hope of moving up closer to the EU average.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$149.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$15,200 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 36%
services: 58% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 2.3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.53 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: services 56%, manufacturing 23%, agriculture, forestry, fisheries 11%, construction 8%, utilities 1%, mining 1% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 7% (January 1998)

Budget:
revenues: $48 billion
expenditures: $52 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.4 billion (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 8.831 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 31.446 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 3,072 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $23.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, cork and paper products, hides
partners: EU 76%, other developed countries 9% (US 5%)

Imports:
total value: $33.9 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, petroleum, textiles
partners: EU 72%, other developed countries 8% (US 3%), less developed countries 17% (1995)

Debt—external: $13.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $220 million (1996)
recipient: ODA, $70 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1—185.81 (January 1998), 175.31 (1997), 154.24 (1996), 151.11 (1995), 165.99 (1994), 160.80 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

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Telephones: 358.61 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations—3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned

Radio broadcast stations: AM 57, FM 66 (repeaters 22), shortwave 0

Radios: 2.2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 66 (repeaters 23)

Televisions: 2,970,892 (1993 est.)

Transportation

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Railways:
total: 3,072 km
broad gauge: 2,769 km 1.668-m gauge (528 km electrified; 426 km double track)
narrow gauge: 303 km 1.000-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 68,732 km
paved: 59,110 km (including 687 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,622 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton cargo capacity

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km; natural gas 700 km
note: the secondary lines for the natural gas pipeline that will be 300 km long have not yet been built

Ports and harbors: Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores), Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine:
total: 107 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 736,478 GRT/1,139,180 DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 60, chemical tanker 10, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 9, oil tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3
note: Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira for Portuguese-owned ships; ships on the Madeira Register (MAR) will have taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience (1997 est.)

Airports: 69 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 41
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 27 (1997 est.)

Military

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Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police

Military manpower—military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 2,545,464 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 2,048,310 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: 76,870 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $2.07 billion (1996)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor province) disputed with Indonesia and not recognized by the UN

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin