Monaco [Country Flag of Monaco]
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Monaco]



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Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references: Europe

total: 1.95 sq km
land: 1.95 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment—current issues: NA

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: second smallest independent state in world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban


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Population: 32,035 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 2,730; female 2,659)
15-64 years: 64% (male 9,934; female 10,463)
65 years and over: 19% (male 2,300; female 3,949) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.4% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.71 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.86 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.41 years
male: 74.79 years
female: 82.21 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: NA


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Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco

Data code: MN

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular—quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since 9 May 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958)
head of government: Minister of State Michel LEVEQUE (since 3 February 1997)
cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the prince
elections: none; the prince is a hereditary monarch; minister of state appointed by the prince from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (18 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 24 and 31 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—National and Democratic Union 15, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme, judges named by the prince on the basis of nominations by the National Council

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union or UND [Jean-Louis CAMPORA]

International organization participation: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Monaco does not have an embassy in the US
consulate(s): New York
honorary consulate(s) general: Boston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
honorary consulate(s): Dallas, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited to Monaco

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red


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Economy—overview: Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. About 55% of Monaco's annual revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels, banks, and the industrial sector. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$800 million (1996 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: NA%

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$25,000 (1996 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate—consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 30,540 (1 January 1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1994)

revenues: $623.3 million
expenditures: $638.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity—capacity: 10,000 kW standby
note: electricity imported from France

Electricity—production: NA kWh

Electricity—consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture—products: none

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Debt—external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—6.0836 (January 1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 53,180 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 33,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 24,000 (1994 est.)


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total: 1.7 km
standard gauge: 1.7 km 1.435-m gauge

total: 50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Monaco

Merchant marine: none

Airports: linked to airport in Nice, France, by helicopter service


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Military—note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: none