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 Mali [Country Flag of Mali]
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Mali]

Mali

Geography

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Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 780 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts

Environment—current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography—note: landlocked

People

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Population: 10,108,569 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 2,405,624; female 2,383,728)
15-64 years: 49% (male 2,367,538; female 2,628,399)
65 years and over: 4% (male 152,999; female 170,281) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.24% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 49.88 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 19.04 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 121.72 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.03 years
male: 45.67 years
female: 48.43 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.02 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 31%
male: 39.4%
female: 23.1% (1995 est.)

Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan

Data code: ML

Government type: republic

National capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular—region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held May 2002); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha Oumar KONARE reelected president; percent of vote—Alpha Oumar KONARE 85.15%, Mamadou DIABY 4.09%, other 10.76%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held in two rounds in 2002); note—much of the opposition boycotted the election
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—ADEMA 130, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Ibrahim N'DIAYE, secretary-general]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary-general]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY, leader]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE, leader]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary-general]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO, leader]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary-general]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO, leaders]

Political pressure groups and leaders: United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA; Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Kaye or MPGK

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUA, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David P. RAWSON
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX: [223] 22 37 12

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

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Economy—overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform, and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994, has pushed up economic growth. Several multinational corporations increased gold mining operations in 1996 and the government anticipates that Mali will become a major Sub-Saharan gold exporter in the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$600 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 49%
industry: 17%
services: 34% (1995)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: NA
by occupation: agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $730 million
expenditures: $770 million, including capital expenditures of $320 million (1997 est.)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1995 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 87,000 kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 290 million kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 31 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $473 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: cotton, livestock, gold
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports:
total value: $797 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction materials, petroleum, textiles
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Debt—external: $2.8 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1—608.36 (January 1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

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Telephones: 11,000 (1982 est.)

Telephone system: domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations—2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 1

Radios: 430,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 11,000 (1992 est.)

Transportation

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Railways:
total: 641 km; (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes)
narrow gauge: 641 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 15,100 km
paved: 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Koulikoro

Airports: 28 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Military

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Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 2,051,976 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 1,174,078 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $66 million (1994)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 2.2% (1994)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: none