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 Lithuania [Country Flag of Lithuania]
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Lithuania]

Lithuania

Geography

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Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 65,200 sq km
land: 65,200 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,273 km
border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 99 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources: peat

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 12%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 430 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment—current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

People

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Population: 3,600,158 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 376,034; female 360,446)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,155,733; female 1,238,671)
65 years and over: 13% (male 159,526; female 309,748) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.45% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.57 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.94 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.75 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.83 years
male: 62.76 years
female: 75.21 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 80.6%, Russian 8.7%, Polish 7%, Byelorussian 1.6%, other 2.1%

Religions: primarily Roman Catholic, others include Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Protestant, evangelical Christian Baptist, Islam, Judaism

Languages: Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: LH

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 44 regions (rajonai, singular—rajonas) and 11 municipalities*: Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*, Anyksciu Rajonas, Birstonas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos Rajonas, Jonavos Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas, Kaisiadoriu Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas, Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas, Kretingos Rajonas, Kupiskio Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*, Marijampoles Rajonas, Mazeikiu Rajonas, Moletu Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*, Panevezio Rajonas, Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas, Prienu Rajonas, Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio Rajonas, Sakiu Rajonas, Salcininku Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu Rajonas, Silales Rajonas, Silutes Rajonas, Sirvintu Rajonas, Skuodo Rajonas, Svencioniu Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traku Rajonas, Ukmerges Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas, Vilkaviskio Rajonas, Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 16 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Valdes ADAMKUS (since 26 February 1998)
head of government: Premier Gediminas VAGNORIUS (since 28 November 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the premier
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 December 1997 and 5 January 1998 (next to be held NA 2003); premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote—Valdas ADAMKUS 50.37%, Arturas PAULAUSKAS 49.7%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October and 10 November 1996 (next to be held NA October 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—TS 69, LKDP 15, LCS 15, LDDP 12, LSDP 10, DP 2, independents 12, others 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Parliament; Court of Appeal, judges appointed by the Parliament

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or LKDP [Algirdas SAUDARGAS, chairman]; Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania or LDDP [Ceslovas JURSENAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Nationalist Union or LTS [Rimantas SMETONA, chairman]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Aloyzas SAKALAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP (previously Farmers' Union) [Albinas VAIZMUZIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Center Union or LCS [Romualdas OZOLAS, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Polish Union or LLS [Rsztardas MACIEKIANIEC, chairman]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie WURTH-POLFER, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Lithuanian Future Forum

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stasys SAKALAUSKAS (appointed 30 September 1997)
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Keith C. SMITH
embassy: Akmenu 6, Vilnius 2600
mailing address: American Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 09723
telephone: [370] (2) 223-031, 227-224
FAX: [370] 670-6084

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

Economy

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Economy—overview: Lithuania has benefited from its disciplined approach to market reform and its adherence to strict fiscal and monetary policies imposed by the IMF, measures that have helped constrain the growth of the money supply, reduce inflation to 8.6%, and support GDP growth of 6% in 1997. Inflation is expected to fall in 1998 to 6% and GDP to grow at close to 7%. Foreign direct investment in 1997 of some $430 million pushed the country over the $1 billion mark, the first Baltic state to reach this milestone. However, the current account deficit has hovered around 8% to 10% of GDP annually since 1995—the result of greater demand for consumer goods and falling growth in exports.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$15.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$4,230 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 9%
industry: 28%
services: 63% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 8.6% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.8 million
by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 6.7% (January 1998)

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (1996)

Electricity—capacity: 5.463 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 14.33 billion kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 2,398 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables; meat, milk, eggs; fish; flax fiber

Exports:
total value: $3.3 billion (1996)
commodities: agricultural products 16.9%, mineral products 15.7%, textiles 15.2%, machinery 11.4%, live animals 7.7% (1996)
partners: Russia, Germany, Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine (1996)

Imports:
total value: $4.4 billion (1996)
commodities: mineral production 20%, machinery 16%, transport equipment 10%, chemicals 10%, textiles 8%, foodstuff 6% (1996)
partners: Russia, Germany, Poland, Italy, Denmark (1996)

Debt—external: $895 million

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $144 million (1993)
note: commitments from the West and international financial institutions, $765 million (1992-95)

Currency: 1 Lithuanian litas = 100 centas

Exchange rates: litai per US$1—4.000 (fixed rate since 1 May 1994), 3.978 (1994), 4.344 (1993), 1.773 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

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Telephones: 1.012 million (1995)

Telephone system: telecommunications system ranks among the most modern of the former Soviet republics
domestic: an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates in Vilnius and other cities; landlines and microwave radio relay connect switching centers
international: international connections no longer depend on the Moscow international gateway switch, but are established by satellite through Oslo from Vilnius and through Copenhagen from Kaunas; satellite earth stations—1 Eutelsat and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); cellular network linked internationally through Copenhagen by Eutelsat; international electronic mail is available; landlines or microwave radio relay to former Soviet republics

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 26, shortwave 1, longwave 1

Radios: 1.42 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 1.77 million (1993 est.)

Transportation

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Railways:
total: 2,002 km
broad gauge: 2,002 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total: 65,135 km
paved: 57,058 km (including 404 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,077 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Kaunas, Klaipeda

Merchant marine:
total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,947 GRT/341,733 DWT
ships by type: cargo 25, combination bulk 11, oil tanker 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 8, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 96 (1994 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 14 (1994 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 63 (1994 est.)

Military

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Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard (Skat)

Military manpower—military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 905,259 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 712,593 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: 26,211 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $81.2 million (1997)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 0.9% (1997)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: ongoing talks over boundary dispute with Latvia (primary concern oil exploration rights); demarcation has begun on border with Belarus; 1997 border agreement with Russia not yet ratified

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia