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 Kenya [Country Flag of Kenya]
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Kenya]

Kenya

Geography

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Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 582,650 sq km
land: 569,250 sq km
water: 13,400 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 3,446 km
border countries: Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 37%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring drought in northern and eastern regions

Environment—current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

People

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Population: 28,337,071 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 6,248,260; female 6,109,443)
15-64 years: 54% (male 7,609,631; female 7,607,810)
65 years and over: 2% (male 333,881; female 428,046) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.71% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 31.68 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.19 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.38 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.57 years
male: 47.02 years
female: 48.13 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.07 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%

Religions: Protestant (including Anglican) 38%, Roman Catholic 28%, indigenous beliefs 26%, Muslim 6%, other 2%

Languages: English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.1%
male: 86.3%
female: 70% (1995 est.)

Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa

Data code: KE

Government type: republic

National capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, and 1997

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote from among the members of the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held by early 2003); vice president appointed by the president
election results: President Daniel T. arap MOI reelected; percent of vote—Daniel T. arap MOI (KANU) 40.12%, Mwai KIBAKI (DP) 31.09%, Raila ODINGA (NDP) 10.2%, Michael WAMALWA (FORD-Kenya) 8.29%, Charity NGILU (SDP) 7.71%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (222 seats, 12 appointed by the president, 210 members popularly elected to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held between 1 December 2002 and 30 April 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—KANU 107, FORD-Asili 1, FORD-Kenya 17, FORD-People 3, DP 39, NDP 21, SDP 15, SAFINA 5, smaller parties 2; seats appointed by the president—KANU 6, FORD-Kenya 1, DP 2, SDP 1, NDP 1, SAFINA 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, chief justice is appointed by the president; High Court

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: Kenya African National Union or KANU [President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI]
opposition party: Democratic Party of Kenya or DP [Mwai KIBAKI]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili or FORD-Asili [Martin SHIKUKU, chairman]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-Kenya [Michael Kijana WAMALWA]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimani wa NYOIKE]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Saba Saba or Asili Saba Saba [Kenneth MATIBA, chairman]; National Development Party or NDP [Raila ODINGA, president and Dr. Charles MARANGA, secretary-general]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Charity NGILU]; SAFINA [Mutari KIGANO, chairman and Dr. Richard LEAKEY, secretary-general]

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and non-government organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA, leader]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations

International organization participation: ACP, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOP, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Samson K. CHEMAI
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Prudence B. BUSHNELL (17 July 1996)
embassy: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
mailing address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (2) 334141
FAX: [254] (2) 340838

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center

Economy

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Economy—overview: Since 1993, the government of Kenya has implemented a program of economic liberalization and reform. Steps have included the removal of import licensing and price controls, removal of foreign exchange controls, fiscal and monetary restraint, and reduction of the public sector through privatizing publicly owned companies and downsizing the civil service. With the support of the World Bank, IMF, and other donors, these reforms have led to a turnaround in economic performance following a period of negative growth in the early 1990s. Kenya's real GDP grew at 5% in 1995 and 4% in 1996, and inflation remained under control. Growth slowed in 1997. Political violence damaged the tourist industry, and the IMF allowed Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program to lapse due to the government's failure to enact reform conditions and to adequately address public sector corruption. Moreover, El Nino rains destroyed crops and damaged an already crumbling infrastructure in 1997 and on into 1998. Long-term barriers to development include electricity shortages, the government's continued and inefficient dominance of key sectors, endemic corruption, and the country's high population growth rate.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$45.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 2.9% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$1,600 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 27%
industry: 20%
services: 53% (1995)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 8.8% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 8.78 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 75%-80%, non-agriculture 20%-25%

Unemployment rate: 35% urban (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures: $3 billion, including capital expenditures of $638 million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), processing agricultural products; oil refining, cement; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1995)

Electricity—capacity: 808,000 kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 3.59 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 134 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: coffee, tea, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

Exports:
total value: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: tea 18%, coffee 15%, petroleum products (1995)
partners: Uganda 22.8%, UK 20.1%, Tanzania 19.1%, Germany 14.0%, Netherlands 7.6%, US 6.1%

Imports:
total value: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 31%, consumer goods 13%, petroleum products 12% (1995)
partners: UK 21.3%, UAE 18%, Japan 14%, Germany, US

Debt—external: $7 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1—61.164 (January 1998), 58.732 (1997), 57.115 (1996), 51.430 (1995), 56.051 (1994), 58.001 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July—30 June

Communications

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Telephones: 357,251 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: in top group of African systems
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations—2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 260,000 (1993 est.)

Transportation

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Railways:
total: 2,652 km
narrow gauge: 2,652 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 63,800 km
paved: 8,868 km
unpaved: 54,932 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya

Pipelines: petroleum products 483 km

Ports and harbors: Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,883 GRT/6,255 DWT
ships by type: oil tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 240 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 211
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 114
under 914 m: 83 (1997 est.)

Military

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Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service Unit of the Police

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 6,870,889 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 4,257,985 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $134 million (FY94/95)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 3.9% (FY94/95)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary

Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small, wild plots of marijuana and qat (chat); transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and, sometimes, North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa