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 Indonesia [Country Flag of Indonesia]
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Indonesia]

Indonesia

Geography

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Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,602 km
border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 62%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes

Environment—current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography—note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People

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Population: 212,941,810 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 33,311,867; female 32,361,468)
15-64 years: 65% (male 69,215,722; female 69,578,527)
65 years and over: 4% (male 3,744,314; female 4,729,912) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.49% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.1 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.22 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.23 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.49 years
male: 60.28 years
female: 64.81 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.61 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78% (1995 est.)

Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Data code: ID

Government type: republic

National capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular—propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular—daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch:
note: on 21 May 1998—less than three months after being reelected to a seventh five-year term—President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO resigned from office; immediately following his resignation he announced that Vice President HABIBIE would assume the presidency for the remainder of the term which expires in 2003; on 28 May 1998, HABIBIE and legislative leaders announced an agreement to hold a new presidential election in 1999
chief of state: President Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE (since 21 March 1998); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE (since 21 March 1998); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president and vice president elected by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 10 March 1998 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO elected president by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly; Bacharuddin J. HABIBIE elected vice president by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly; note—Vice President HABIBIE assumed the presidency after SOEHARTO's resignation

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 425 elected by popular vote, 75 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party—Golkar 74.5%, PPP 22.43%, PDI 3.07%; seats by party—Golkar 325, PPP 89, PDI 11
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Golkar (de facto ruling political party based on functional groups), HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI, federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), SOERJADI, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador DORODJATUN Kuntoro-Jakti
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
mailing address: Box 1, APO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 344-2211
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

Economy

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Economy—overview: While Indonesia was long touted for its sound macroeconomic management and spectacular growth, the Asian financial crisis in 1997/98 revealed the weak underpinnings of the economy: an unhealthy banking sector, untenable levels of private foreign debt, and uncompetitive practices that favored the financial interests of former President SOEHARTO's family and friends. Indonesia sought IMF assistance early in the crisis and eventually brokered a $42 billion bailout package; but Jakarta jeopardized the program by resisting strict IMF reforms, partly in response to the rupiah's collapse, which lost as much as 80% of its value at one point. Economic prospects look bleak for 1998: the economy probably will shrink between 4% to 10%, unemployment top historic highs—in excess of 15%—and inflation move toward hyper levels.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$960 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$4,600 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 16%
industry: 43%
services: 41% (1996)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 50% (1998 est.)

Labor force:
total: 67 million
by occupation: agriculture 44%, manufacturing 13%, construction 5%, transport and communications 4%, other 34% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15%; underemployment 50% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $42.8 billion
expenditures: $42.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $14.4 billion (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 16.265 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 60.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 297 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Exports:
total value: $53.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: textiles/garments 20.6%, wood products 15.7%, electronics 9.9%, footwear 6.1%
partners: Japan 27.1%, US 13.9%, Singapore 8.3%, South Korea 6.4%, Taiwan 3.9%, China 3.8%, Hong Kong 3.6% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $41.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: manufactures 75.3%, raw materials 9.0%, foodstuffs 7.8%, fuels 7.7%
partners: Japan 22.7%, US 11.7%, Germany 6.9%, South Korea 6.0%, Singapore 5.8%, Australia 5.0%, Taiwan 4.5% (1995)

Debt—external: $136 billion (yearend 1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: IMF program, $42 billion (1998 est.)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (Rp)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1—8,000 (April 1998), 2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3 (1996), 2,248.6 (1995), 2,160.8 (1994), 2,087.1 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April—31 March

Communications

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Telephones: 1,276,600 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: satellite earth stations—2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 618, FM 38, shortwave 0

Radios: 28.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 11.5 million (1992 est.)

Transportation

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Railways:
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 393,000 km
paved: 178,815 km
unpaved: 214,185 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine:
total: 503 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,433,857 GRT/3,510,818 DWT
ships by type: bulk 35, cargo 291, chemical tanker 8, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 5, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 105, passenger 8, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 10, short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 442 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 124
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 40
914 to 1,523 m: 41
under 914 m: 28 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 318
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 32
under 914 m: 281 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1997 est.)

Military

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Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower—military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 59,862,854 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 35,148,486 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: 2,286,098 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $3.3 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY97/98)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin