(dependent territory of the UK)
[Country Flag of Gibraltar]
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Gibraltar]



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Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 36 11 N, 5 22 W

Map references: Europe

total: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km

Coastline: 12 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment—current issues: limited natural freshwater resources, so large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rain water

Environment—international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography—note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea


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Population: 29,045 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 3,131; female 2,731)
15-64 years: 66% (male 10,835; female 8,262)
65 years and over: 14% (male 1,684; female 2,402) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.43% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.01 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.78 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.31 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.61 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.19 years
male: 74.9 years
female: 81.64 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.19 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups: Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish

Religions: Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%, other 3%), Muslim 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)

Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian

definition: NA
total population: above 95%
male: NA%
female: NA%


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Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar

Data code: GI

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Gibraltar

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)

Constitution: 30 May 1969

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects resident six months or more

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Admiral Sir Richard LUCE (24 February 1997)
head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the elected members of the House of Assembly by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
note: there is also a Gibraltar Council that advises the governor
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (18 seats, 15 elected, the Speaker, and 2 ex officio; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 May 1996 (next to be held NA May 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party—SD 53%, SL 42%, NP 3%; seats by party—SD 8, SL 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or SL [Joe BOSSANO]; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights or GCL/AACR [Adolfo CANEPA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or SD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar National Party or NP [Joe GARCIA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Housewives Association; Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization

International organization participation: Interpol (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag description: two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band


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Economy—overview: Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 11% to the local economy. The financial sector accounts for 15% of GDP; tourism (more than 5 million visitors in 1995), shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$500 million (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: NA%

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$17,500 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 2.1% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
by occupation: services 60%, industry 40%, agriculture NEGL

Unemployment rate: 13.5% (1996)

revenues: $111.6 million
expenditures: $115.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995/96)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, ship-building and repairing; support to large UK naval and air bases; tobacco, mineral waters, beer, canned fish

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity—capacity: 30,000 kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 85 million kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 2,667 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: none

total value: $83.7 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
partners: UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

total value: $778 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
partners: UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands

Debt—external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Gibraltar pound (£G) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (£G) per US$1—0.6115 (January 1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993); note - the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 July—30 June


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Telephones: 19,356 (1994)

Telephone system: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange facilities
international: radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station—1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4

Televisions: NA


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total: NA km; 1.000-m gauge system in dockyard area only

total: 49.9 km (including 12.9 km public highways)
paved: 49.9 km
unpaved: 0 km

Pipelines: 0 km

Ports and harbors: Gibraltar

Merchant marine:
total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 360,880 GRT/627,429 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, chemical tanker 2, container 1, oil tanker 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)


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Military branches: British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force

Military—note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: source of friction between Spain and the UK