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 Cambodia [Country Flag of Cambodia]
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Cambodia]

Cambodia

Geography

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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
total: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment—current issues: logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography—note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap

People

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Population: 11,339,562 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,611,684; female 2,533,313)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,729,598; female 3,119,579)
65 years and over: 3% (male 142,836; female 202,552) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.51% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.63 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.49 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.76 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.99 years
male: 46.64 years
female: 49.41 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35%
male: 48%
female: 22% (1990 est.)

Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993

National capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 3 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu* (Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
note: there may be a new municipality called Pailin

Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: currently being defined

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister UNG HUOT (since NA August 1997) and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN (since NA 1993); note—former First Prime Minister Prince Norodom RANARIDDH deposed in July 1997 by forces loyal to HUN SEN
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime ministers appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 23 May 1993 (next to be held 26 July 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—FUNCINPEC 58, CPP 51, BLDP 10, MOLINAKA 1
note: the May 1993 elections were for the Constituent Assembly which became the National Assembly after the new constitution was promulgated in September 1993

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of the Magistracy, provided for in the constitution, was formed in December 1997

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP), SON SANN; Buddhist Liberal Party (BLP), IENG MOULY; National Solidarity Party (also known as Democratic Kampuchea, also known as the Khmer Rouge), KHIEU SAMPHAN; Movement Pour La Liberation Nationale Khmere (MOLINAKA), PROM NEAKAREACH; Khmer Nation Party (KNP), SAM RANGSI

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador VAR HUOTH
chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth M. QUINN
embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 216-436, 216-438
FAX: [855] (23) 216-437

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band

Economy

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Economy—overview: After four years of solid macroeconomic performance, Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997 due to the twin shocks of the regional economic crisis and the July violence and political infighting. Economic growth fell from 6.5% in 1996 to 1.5% in 1997, foreign investment slowed, and tourism declined 16% from 1996 levels. Despite these difficulties, inflation accelerated only slightly to 9.5%; the government managed to keep the national budget in balance even with increased expenditures on the military and police; and the economy ran a small balance of payments surplus. The future payments could be adversely affected by the currency crises in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, which tends to make Cambodia's exports more expensive at the same time imports from these countries become cheaper. The long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. Human resource levels in the population are low, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside. The almost total lack of basic infrastructure in the countryside will continue to hinder development. Recurring political instability hinders foreign investment. Corruption and inexperience among Cambodia's government officials will serve as a further drag on the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$7.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 1.5% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$715 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 47.3%
industry: 15.4%
services: 37.3% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 9.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million
by occupation: agriculture 80% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $261 million
expenditures: $496 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1995 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 35,000 kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 190 million kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 18 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports:
total value: $615 million (1996 est.)
commodities: timber, garments, rubber, soybeans, sesame
partners: Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, US

Imports:
total value: $1 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products, machinery, motor vehicles
partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

Debt—external: $2.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: international donors pledged a total of $1.8 billion in 1995 and 1996

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1—3,537.0 (January 1998), 2,946.3 (1997), 2,624.1 (1996), 2,450.8 (1995), 2,545.3 (1994), 2,689.0 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

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Telephones: 7,000 (1981 est.)

Telephone system: service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public
domestic: NA
international: landline international service limited to Vietnam and other adjacent countries; satellite earth station—1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 10, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 800,000 (1996 est.)

Transportation

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Railways:
total: 603 km
narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 35,769 km
paved: 4,165 km
unpaved: 31,604 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
total: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 390,566 GRT/556,743 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 66, container 2, livestock carrier 2, oil tankers 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 7 countries: Aruba 1, Cyprus 8, Egypt 1, South Korea 1, Malta 1, Panama 1, Russia 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 20 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

Military

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Military branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)—created in 1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two noncommunist resistance armies
note: there are also resistance forces comprised of the Khmer Rouge (also known as the National United Army or NUA) and a separate royalist resistance movement

Military manpower—military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 2,477,842 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 1,381,787 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: 113,098 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $160 million (1996)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: offshore islands and sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined; parts of border with Thailand are indefinite; maritime boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: transshipment site for Golden Triangle heroin en route to West; possible money-laundering; high-level narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the international market