(dependent territory of the UK)
[Country Flag of Bermuda]
Transnational Issues
[Country map of Bermuda]



[Top of Page]

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

total: 50 sq km
land: 50 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA (1997 est.)
note: developed (55%), and rural and open space (39%) comprise 94% of Bermudian land area

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment—current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space

Environment—international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography—note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995


[Top of Page]

Population: 62,009 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 6,191; female 6,046)
15-64 years: 70% (male 21,330; female 21,912)
65 years and over: 10% (male 2,777; female 3,753) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.77% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.21 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.22 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.77 years
male: 75 years
female: 78.63 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 61%, white and other 39%

Religions: Anglican 28%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) 12%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Methodist 5%, other 34% (1991)

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (1970 est.)


[Top of Page]

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda

Data code: BD

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since June 1997)
head of government: Premier Pamela GORDON (since 25 March 1997); Deputy Premier Jerome DILL (since 1 September 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by the queen; premier appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party—UBP 50%, PLP 46%, independents 4%; seats by party—UBP 22, PLP 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela GORDON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; National Liberal Party or NLP [Charles JEFFERS]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA (Leleath BAILEY)

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC, ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Robert A. FARMER
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag description: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag


[Top of Page]

Economy—overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing financial services for international firms and luxury tourist facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry, which accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported. International business contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to Bermudian fears of scaring away foreign firms.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$1.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$29,000 (1996 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 1.8% (November 1997)

Labor force:
total: 34,633
by occupation: clerical 23%, services 22%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 12%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

revenues: $430.9 million
expenditures: $452.9 million, including capital expenditures of $50 million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity—capacity: 145,000 kW (1996)

Electricity—production: 527,526,728 kWh (1996)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 7,856 kWh (1996)

Agriculture—products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

total value: $67.7 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals
partners: Netherlands 50%, Brazil 13%, Canada 6% (1996)

total value: $569 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: miscellaneous manufactured articles, machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, chemicals
partners: US 73%, UK 5%, Canada 4% (1996 est.)

Debt—external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1—1.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April—31 March


[Top of Page]

Telephones: 54,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations—3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 57,000 (1992 est.)


[Top of Page]

Railways: 0 km

total: 225 km
paved: 225 km
unpaved: 0 km (1997 est.)
note: in addition, there are 232 km of paved and unpaved roads that are privately owned

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
total: 91 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,590,132 GRT/7,440,524 DWT
ships by type: bulk 18, chemical tanker 1, container 18, liquefied gas tanker 7, oil tanker 26, refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 8 countries among which are UK 31, Canada 13, US 10, Norway 2, Hong Kong 1, Nigeria 4, Sweden 4, and Mexico 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)


[Top of Page]

Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: NA%

Military—note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

[Top of Page]

Disputes—international: none